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Notation
Symbol 
Explanation 
Dimension 
A 
Yintercept of straight line (for straightline method) 

a 
hydraulic diffusivity: where m – aquifer thickness; hydraulic diffusivity for unconfined aquifer: where m – initial water saturated thickness of unconfined aquifer 
m2/d 
az 
hydraulic diffusivity in vertical direction 
m2/d 
B 
leakage factor 
m 
C 
slope of the straight line (for straightline method) 

D 
vertical distance between the axes of the observation plot and the type curve plot 

d 
distance between screen middle points in pumping and observation wells 
m 
E 
horizontal distance between axes of observation plot and type curve plot 

f1, f2 
drawdown function values in the first and second observation wells (for bisecting line method) 

k 
hydraulic conductivity 
m/d 
kr 
hydraulic conductivity in horizontal direction 
m/d 
kz 
hydraulic conductivity in vertical direction 
m/d 
L 
strip aquifer width 
m 
Lp 
horizontal distance from observation well to the boundary 
m 
Lw 
horizontal distance from pumping well to the boundary 
m 
lp 
observation well screen length 
m 
lw 
pumping well screen length 
m 
M(u, β) 
special function 

m 
aquifer thickness or initial water saturated thickness of unconfined aquifer (i.e. distance from aquifer bottom to water table) 
m 
N 
number of pumping wells 

n 
number of reflections from one boundary 

number of pumping rate steps in the ith well at time tij 


Q 
pumping rate in a well 
m3/d 
value of pumping rate at jth step in the ith pumping well 
m3/d 

r 
horizontal distance between pumping and observation wells 
m 
radius of pumping well casing 
m 

rw 
radius of pumping well 
m 
S 
storage coefficient 
Dimensionless 
Ss 
specific storage 
1/m 
Sy 
specific yield 
Dimensionless 
s 
drawdown (recovery) 
m 
s0 
drawdown in the well at the time of pumping stop 
m 
initial (instantaneous – for slug test) drawdown in the pumping well 
m 

sm 
steadystate drawdown 
m 
sr 
recovery counted from the start of recovery 
m 
drawdown in the pumping well 
m 

T 
transmissivity 
m2/d 
t 
time 
d 
t0 
duration of pumping 
d 
tr 
time since the start of recovery 
d 
time since the beginning of the jth pumping rate step in the ith pumping well 
d 

u 
function argument 

W(u) 
well function 

W(u, β) 
leaky aquifer function 

z 
vertical distances: to aquifer top, to bottom to image well etc; for partially penetrating wells: vertical distance between screen middle points in pumping and observation wells 
m 
β 
function argument 

ΔL 
retardation coefficient 
m 
ρ 
horizontal distance between observation and image wells 
m 
χ 
anisotropy ratio 
Dimensionless 
τ 
variable of integration 

Superscripts and subscripts
Symbol 
Explanation 
a 
relates to aquifer anisotropic on the vertical scale 
pumping well number related to bounded aquifers 

pumping well number related to infinite and semiinfinite aquifers 

reflections from the left (top) or from the right (bottom) boundaries 

rate step number related to bounded aquifers 

rate step number related to infinite and semiinfinite aquifers 

reflection number related to bounded aquifers 

p 
relates to observation well or piezometer 
w 
relates to pumping well 
1, 2 
relates to the first and the second observation wells in solutions based on drawdown in two observation wells 
character stroke 
relates to aquitard between two aquifers 